Double curved surface composites for anthropometry-formed 3D woven apparel forms

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis


Traditional apparel assembly technology - cut and sewn process - requires labour-intensive pre- and post-production. While conventional weaving technology has made efforts to streamline the garment-making process, additional assembly processes are still required - sewing or joining after removing the woven samples from the loom. This challenge in the garment-making process discloses the need for a novel type of advanced textile technology and manufacturing techniques incorporating shaping and assembly capabilities. 3D weaving technology houses the advantages of shaping from yarn to complex 3D woven forms in one weaving cycle, eliminating the need for post-production sewing or joining steps. This advanced technology has emerged as a successful solution in the engineering industry for enhancing composite manufacturing processes - reducing the further joining process. This research innovatively focuses on the development and innovation of 3D weaving principles and technology particularly apply in the context of apparel-garment manufacturing. 3D weaving principles associated with 3D weaving technology are innovated to contribute as an effective alternative garment making technique, aiming to facilitate the effectiveness and sustainability of the apparel manufacturing process.

Positioning in the apparel-bra manufacturing process provides the geometric and technical framework of 3D weaving technology development. The primary objective is to develop a methodology for manufacturing 3D double-curved (D-C) composites with three key characteristics: proper shape, minimal loom modifications, and shaped from yarn to 3D forms in a single weaving cycle. This innovation eliminates need of additional assembly steps - sewing or joining processes. The 3D-to-2D-to-3D methodology is proposed to achieve the required 3D woven D-C composites. The mathematical model construction by using origami geometric principle via 3D-to-2D geometric transmitted process enables the proposed geometric shape and outlines for the further weaving process. Extensive 3D weaving parameters – multilayer and multilevel weaving architecture, layer design, and shuttle parameters (shuttle numbers and moving sequence) – are established to ensure the shaping mouldability of 3D weaving manufacturing processes. With the actual loom (MS-100 loom) application, as a result, five 3D woven D-C composites are successfully manufactured to accomplish the above-proposed design. These findings validate the feasibility of the proposed innovative manufacturing methodology underlying 3D weaving principles and technology.

Furthermore, the proved 3D-to-2D-to-3D technical steps integrated with weaving parameters are adapted to weave 3D apparel forms. The 3D woven bra prototype is explored as a case study. Exploiting the established method and manufacturing parameters, the 3D woven bra prototype is practically demonstrated in a significant effective manufacturing process, shaped in one weaving cycle without additional assembly needs. The bra manufacturing process is also assessed by traditional industry loom, and the same efficient manufacturing process is also achieved. This indicates that 3D weaving technology contributes as an innovative manufacturing technology in the apparel industry to facilitate the manufacturing process significantly and eliminates further joining and sewing processes.

The unique achievement of this research is to address the limitations of traditional garment-making techniques by innovating 3D weaving principles and technology. It offers an effective alternative that streamlines the manufacturing process, eliminating additional sewing and joining steps. The novel application of 3D weaving technology in apparel production fills a research gap and promotes effectiveness and sustainability in the apparel-garment manufacturing industry. These contributions drive significant advancements in both 3D weaving technology and the apparel manufacturing process, benefiting both areas and leading to more efficient and sustainable practices.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • University of Leeds
  • Taylor, Lindsey Waterton, Supervisor, External person
  • Cheung, Vien, Supervisor, External person
  • Sayem, Abu Sadat Muhammad, Supervisor, External person
Thesis sponsors
Award date25 Apr 2023
Place of PublicationLeeds
Publication statusSubmitted - 2022

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