The paper examines the main drivers, nature and extent of employee training in oil and gas (O&G) multinational companies (MNCs). Using insights from 16 managers in Nigeria O&G industry, we identified three broad levels of factors driving the training provisions and talent development decisions. The study further develops an integrated model of direct and moderating factors of training. The findings suggest that government regulations, health and safety concerns, industry-education outreach programmes and the general level of industry tend to trigger proactive measures in developing relevant training programmes. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that organizations’ strategies, policies, health and safety concerns and technological changes also influence training decision-making. The practical implications of the study as well as implications for training and development research are discussed.