Ecstasy/MDMA attributed problems reported by novice, moderate and heavy recreational users

Andrew Parrott, Tom Heffernan, Tom Buchanan, Andrew Scholey, Jonathan Ling, Jacqui Rodgers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Citations (Scopus)
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The recreational use of MDMA/Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is associated with many psychobiological problems, but there is a paucity of data on how these relate to the level of past use. Objectives: to assess the incidence of Ecstasy-attributed problems as reported by novice, moderate and heavy users. Methods: 763 unpaid volunteers took part in a WWW study of recreational drug use. This report is based on the 282 Ecstasy users from that sample, who comprised 109 novice users (1–9 occasions), 136 moderate users (10–99 occasions), and 36 heavy users (+100 occasions). Yes/no responses were automatically recorded to a series of questions covering psychobiological problems experienced when drug-free, which were attributed by the respondents to their Ecstasy use. Results: Depression, memory problems, anxiety, mood fluctuation, poor concentration, infections, tremors/twitches and weight loss, were all significantly associated with the extent of Ecstasy use. Thus memory problems attributed to Ecstasy were reported by 19% of novice users, 52% of heavy users and 73% of heavy users (chi-square 42.74, df=2, p
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-312
JournalHuman Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2002


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