Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to decrements in muscle performance and increases in intramuscular enzymes measured in the plasma, and to delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), partly due to the activation of degradative pathways. It has been shown that milk-based carbohydrate-protein (CHO-P) can limit changes in markers of EIMD, possibly by attenuating protein degradation and (or) increasing protein synthesis. However, the timing of supplementation has received limited attention, and this may alter the response. This study examined the effects of acute milk-based CHO-P supplementation timing on the attenuation of EIMD. Four independent matched groups of 8 healthy males consumed milk-based CHO-P before (PRE), immediately after (POST), or 24 h after (TWENTY-FOUR) muscle-damaging exercise. Active DOMS, isokinetic muscle performance, reactive strength index (RSI), and creatine kinase (CK) were assessed immediately before and 24, 48, and 72 h after EIMD. POST and TWENTY-FOUR demonstrated a benefit in limiting changes in active DOMS, peak torque, and RSI over 48 h, compared with PRE. PRE showed a possible benefit in reducing increases in CK over 48 h and limiting changes in other variables over 72 h. Consuming milk-based CHO-P after muscle-damaging exercise is more beneficial in attenuating decreases in muscle performance and increases in active DOMS at 48 h than ingestion prior to exercise.