Effective sounds in complex systems: The arkola simulation

W.W. Gaver, R.B. Smith, T. O'Shea

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

153 Citations (Scopus)


We designed an ecology of auditory icons which worked together to convey information about a complex, demanding simulation task, and observed users collaborating on it with and without sound. Our
observations suggest that audio cues can provide useful information about processes and problems, and support the perceptual integration of a number of separate processes into one complex one. In addition, they can smooth the transition between division of labour and collaboration by
providing a new dimension of reference. These results suggest that auditory icons can play a significant role in future multiprocessing and collaborative systems.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1991

Research Group keywords

  • Interaction Research Studio

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