Effect of metal dopants on the electrochromic performance of hydrothermally-prepared tungsten oxide materials

Kunyapat Thummavichai*, Thi hai quyen Nguyen, Giulia Longo, Dayuan Qiang, Guillaume Zoppi, Derck Schlettwein, Pietro Maiello, Nicole Fleck, Nannan Wang, Yanqiu Zhu

*Corresponding author for this work

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Electrochromic (EC) glass has the potential to significantly improve energy efficiency in buildings by controlling the amount of light and heat that the building exchanges with its exterior. However, the development of EC materials is still hindered by key challenges such as slow switching time, low coloration efficiency, short cycling lifetime, and material degradation. Metal doping is a promising technique to enhance the performance of metal oxide-based EC materials, where adding a small amount of metal into the host material can lead to lattice distortion, a variation of oxygen vacancies, and a shorter ion transfer path during the insertion and de-insertion process. In this study, we investigated the effects of niobium, gadolinium, and erbium doping on tungsten oxide using a single-step solvothermal technique. Our results demonstrate that both insertion and de-insertion current density of a doped sample can be significantly enhanced by metal elements, with an improvement of about 5, 4 and 3.5 times for niobium, gadolinium and erbium doped tungsten oxide, respectively compared to a pure tungsten oxide sample. Moreover, the colouration efficiency increased by 16, 9 and 24% when doping with niobium, gadolinium and erbium, respectively. These findings suggest that metal doping is a promising technique for improving the performance of EC materials and can pave the way for the development of more efficient EC glass for building applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35457-35467
Number of pages11
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number50
Early online date19 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - 19 Dec 2023

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