Efficacy and Feasibility of Pain management and Patient Education for Physical Activity in Intermittent claudication (PrEPAID): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Ukachukwu Abaraogu, Philippa Dall, Julie Brittenden, Wesley Stuart, Garry Tew, Jon Godwin, Christopher A. Seenan

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Abstract

Background: Physical activity (PA) improves functional capacity and quality of life and provides secondary prevention benefits in individuals with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC). However, pain and patient lack of knowledge are key barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, PA recommendations. This trial will test the efficacy and feasibility of a non-invasive pain management intervention with and without patient education to improve PA in individuals with PAD and IC. Methods: This is a randomised, controlled assessor-blinded feasibility trial with four parallel groups. Eighty adults with PAD and IC will be randomly assigned 1:1:1:1 to Active TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), Placebo TENS, Active TENS + Patient education or Placebo TENS + Patient education groups. All groups will continue to receive usual care over the intervention period. Participants randomised to Active TENS will receive a TENS device (preset at 120 Hz, 200 μs) and will be instructed to use the device daily at home or elsewhere for 6 weeks with a patient-determined intensity of "strong but comfortable". Placebo TENS group participants will receive the same model of TENS device and instructions for use as those in the active group, except that the stimulation dose will be safely altered to produce non-therapeutic, ineffective stimulation. Participants randomised to patient education will receive a one-off 3-h workshop of structured group education (four to five persons in each group) and three sets of twice-weekly phone calls. Efficacy outcomes will be assessed at baseline, after 6 weeks of intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Absolute claudication distance using the Gardner treadmill protocol will be assessed as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes will assess initial claudication distance, daily PA and patient-reported outcomes including quality of life, pain self-efficacy, depression, disease perception and walking impairment pain intensity and quality. Feasibility outcomes will assess rates of recruitment, retention and adherence. Focus groups with participants at the end of the trial will explore the acceptability of the interventions. Discussion: This trial will determine the efficacy and feasibility of using a low-cost, CE-marked non-invasive pain management modality delivered with or without a patient-centred education intervention to improve PA in individuals with PAD and IC. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03204825. Registered on 2 July 2017.

Original languageEnglish
Article number222
JournalTrials
Volume20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2019

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