Efficient and stable routing algorithm based on user mobility and node density in urban vehicular network

Yusor Rafid Bahar Al-Mayouf, Mahamod Ismail, Nor Fadzilah Abdullah, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Omar Adil Mahdi, Suleman Khan, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)


Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are considered an emerging technology in the industrial and educational fields. This technology is essential in the deployment of the intelligent transportation system, which is targeted to improve safety and efficiency of traffic. The implementation of VANETs can be effectively executed by transmitting data among vehicles with the use of multiple hops. However, the intrinsic characteristics of VANETs, such as its dynamic network topology and intermittent connectivity, limit data delivery. One particular challenge of this network is the possibility that the contributing node may only remain in the network for a limited time. Hence, to prevent data loss from that node, the information must reach the destination node via multi-hop routing techniques. An appropriate, efficient, and stable routing algorithm must be developed for various VANET applications to address the issues of dynamic topology and intermittent connectivity. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel routing algorithm called efficient and stable routing algorithm based on user mobility and node density (ESRA-MD). The proposed algorithm can adapt to significant changes that may occur in the urban vehicular environment. This algorithm works by selecting an optimal route on the basis of hop count and link duration for delivering data from source to destination, thereby satisfying various quality of service considerations. The validity of the proposed algorithm is investigated by its comparison with ARP-QD protocol, which works on the mechanism of optimal route finding in VANETs in urban environments. Simulation results reveal that the proposed ESRA-MD algorithm shows remarkable improvement in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and communication overhead.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0165966
JournalPLoS One
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2016


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