Emotions and sport performance: an exploration of happiness, hope, and anger.

Tim Woodman, Paul Davis, Lew Hardy, Nichola Callow, Ian Glasscock, Jason Yuill-Proctor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Citations (Scopus)


We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts' peak force increased more than introverts'. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus's framework.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-188
JournalJournal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009


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