Endocrine adverse events related with immune checkpoint inhibitors: An update for clinicians

Maria V. Deligiorgi*, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Dimitrios T. Trafalis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Designated as scientific breakthrough of current decade, immune checkpoint inhibitors attenuate the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-Associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, depriving cancer cells of a key strategy of evasion from immunosurveillance. The reinvigoration of immune response translates into clinical success, inevitably entwined with a novel constellation of immune-related adverse events. The present review dissects the endocrine immune-related adverse events, emphasizing their unique profile featured by unpredictable onset, irreversibility, nonspecific symptoms, wide clinical spectrum and sophisticated diagnostic work-up. Guidelines advocate individualized decision-making process guided by clinicians' judgement. Future perspective should be governed by five principles-prevention, anticipation, detection, treatment, monitoring-aiming to gain the optimal profit diminishing immunotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)481-510
Number of pages30
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


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