Energy-efficient Harvested-Aware clustering and cooperative Routing Protocol for WBAN (E-HARP)

Zahid Ullah, Imran Ahmed, Fakhri Alam Khan, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Nawaz, Tamleek Ali, Muhammad Khalid, Fahim Niaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is an interconnection of small bio-sensor nodes that are deployed in/on different parts of human body. It is used to sense health-related data such as rate of heart beat, blood pressure, blood glucose level, Electro-cardiogram (ECG), Electro-myography (EMG) etc. of human body and pass these readings to real-time health monitoring systems. WBANs is an important research area and is used in different applications such as medical field, sports, entertainment, social welfare etc. Bio-Sensor Nodes (BSNs) or simply called as Sensor Nodes (SNs) are the main backbone of WBANs. SNs normally have very limited resources due to its smaller size. Therefore, minimum consumption of energy is an essential design requirement of WBAN schemes. In the proposed work, Energy-efficient Harvested-Aware clustering and cooperative Routing Protocol for WBAN (E-HARP) are presented. The presented protocol mainly proposes a novel multi-attribute-based technique for dynamic Cluster Head (CH) selection and cooperative routing. In the first phase of this two-phased technique, optimum CH is selected among the cluster members, based on calculated Cost Factor (CF). The parameters used for calculation of CF are; residual energy of SN, required transmission power, communication link Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) and total network energy loss. In order to distribute load on one CH, E-HARP selects new CH in each data transmission round. In the second phase of E-HARP, data is routed with cooperative effort of the SN, which saves the node energy by prohibiting the transmission of redundant data packets. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, comprehensive experimentations using NS-2 simulation tool has been conducted. The results are compared with some latest techniques named as EH-RCB, ELR-W, Co-LAEEBA, and EECBSR. The acquired results show a significant enhancement of E-HARP in terms of network stability, network life time, throughput, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100036-100050
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date23 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 8 Aug 2019


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