Whilst energy issues are generally understood in both rural and urban areas, there is a poor grasp of the same issues where the rural meets the urban. These peri-urban areas have their own characteristics and own dynamics that require a specific focus if energy needs are to be satisfied. There are specific problems, constraints and opportunities in peri-urban zones that are both areas of consumption and production. This paper explores the range of energy demand issues in the periurban interface. This includes an examination of household livelihood strategies, energy conservation, fuel-switching, gender issues, peri-urban energy markets and participatory planning for energy interventions.