By increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs), which are charged in electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) in a distribution network, an optimal charging and discharging strategy that considers the distribution network constraints should be developed to guarantee economically and technically rewards of EVs and EVCSs. This study aims to develop a scheduling scheme to meet benefits of EVs and EVCSs in charging/discharging operation. Each EV plans its charging and discharging operation for 24 h ahead. The benefits of all agents in EV charging/discharging are taken into account by formulating a bilevel optimization problem that the upper level belongs to EVCSs and the inner level belongs to EVs. A scheduling system is responsible to collect the data from EVs and EVCSs and run the bilevel optimization problem and sends the results to EVs and EVCSs. For simulation purposes, a case study based on San Diego, USA, is presented to visualize and validate the modeling results. Six EVCSs are considered for charging and discharging of 400 EVs during 24 h.
|Title of host publication||Energy Storage in Energy Markets|
|Subtitle of host publication||Uncertainties, Modelling, Analysis and Optimization|
|Editors||Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Amin Mohammadpour Shotorbani, Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam|
|Place of Publication||London|
|Publication status||Published - 30 Apr 2021|