Enhancing Heat Transfer Efficiency in Permanent Magnet Machines through Innovative Thermal Design of Stator Windings

Xiang Shen, Xu Deng*, Barrie Mecrow, Rafal Wrobel, Richard Whalley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Downloads (Pure)


This paper investigates innovative methods for enhancing heat transfer efficiency in high-power permanent magnet electrical machines. The objectives are to quantify the effects of increasing the air speed, increasing the turbulence intensity, and introducing the spacing between windings on cooling performance. The cooling of stator windings is studied through experimental wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is validated against wind tunnel measurements to within 4 Kelvin (K). The results demonstrate that each enhancement method significantly improves the cooling capability. Increasing the air speed from 10 m/s to 40 m/s reduces the winding hotspot temperature by 34%. Introducing a high turbulence intensity of 40% leads to a 21% lower hotspot temperature compared to 0.5% turbulence intensity. Creating a 1.5 mm spacing between coils also substantially improves convection and conduction heat transfer. Overall, combining these optimised design parameters yields over a 40% reduction in hotspot temperature compared to the original design. This research provides practical guidance for maximising heat transfer efficiency in high-power permanent magnet machines, without increasing complexity. The findings will lead to higher machine efficiency, reliability, and longevity for aerospace and other applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2658
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2024

Cite this