E2MR: Energy-efficient multipath routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks

Muhammad Khalid*, Farah Ahmad, Muhammad Arshad, Waqar Khalid, Naveed Ahmad, Yue Cao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


Exploration of underwater resources, oceanographic data collection, tactical surveillance and natural disaster prevention are some of the areas of Underwater Wireless Sensor Network(UWSN) applications. UWSN is different from traditional wireless sensor network. The later uses radio waves for communication between sensors while the former uses acoustic waves for data transmission. Communication through UWSN is more challenging because of the many challenges associated with acoustic channels such as low bandwidth, high transmission delay, usual path loss and intermittent connectivity. In UWSN, some algorithms were introduced to enhance the lifetime of networks, by using a smaller battery and other for critical data transmission. However, data packets flooding, path loss and low network lifetime are few challenges with immediate attention. This study proposes a novel routing scheme referred to as the energy-efficient multipath routing (E2MR) for UWSN, which is basically designed for long-term monitoring with higher energy efficiency and delivery ratio. The E2MR establishes a priority table, and the forward nodes are selected based on that priority table. Different experiments are carried out by simulating E2MR and compared with Depth-Based Routing (DBR), EEDBR and H2-DAB with respect to the number of live nodes, end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and total energy consumption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-328
Number of pages8
JournalIET Networks
Issue number5
Early online date16 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2019


Dive into the research topics of 'E2MR: Energy-efficient multipath routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this