Evaluation of relationships between results of electrocardiography and echocardiography in 341 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

Aimee L. Drane*, Rebeca Atencia, Stephen Mark Cooper, Yedra Feltrer, Thalita Calvi, Tai Strike, Christopher Palmer, Sarah Simcox, Pablo Rodriguez, Carlos Sanchez, Hester van Bolhuis, Bruce Peck, Jaclyn Eng, Sophie Moittie, Steve Unwin, Glyn Howatson, David Oxborough, Mike R. Stembridge, Rob E. Shave

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To examine potential relationships between ECG characteristics and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). ANIMALS 341 chimpanzees (175 males and 166 females) from 5 sanctuaries and 2 zoological collections. 

PROCEDURES: Chimpanzees were anesthetized for routine health examinations between May 2011 and July 2017 as part of the International Primate Heart Project and, during the same anesthetic events, underwent 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiographic assessments. Relationships between results for ECG and those for echocardiographic measures of atrial areas, left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd), and mean left ventricular wall thicknesses (MLVWT) were assessed with correlational analysis, then multiple linear regression analyses were used to create hierarchical models to predict cardiac structure from ECG findings. 

RESULTS: Findings indicated correlations (r = –0.231 to 0.310) between results for ECG variables and echocardiographic measures. The duration and amplitude of P waves in lead II had the strongest correlations with atrial areas. The Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and R-wave amplitude in leads V6 and II had the strongest correlations with MLVWT, whereas the Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and S-wave amplitude in leads V2 and V1 had the strongest correlations with LVIDd. However, the ECG predictive models that were generated only accounted for 17%, 7%, 11%, and 8% of the variance in the right atrial end-systolic area, left atrial end-systolic area, MLVWT, and LVIDd, respectively. 

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that relationships existed between ECG findings and cardiac morphology in the chimpanzees of the present study; however, further research is required to examine whether the predictive models generated can be modified to improve their clinical utility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)488-498
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


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