We consider the space-time evolution of initial discontinuities of depth and flow velocity for an integrable version of the shallow water Boussinesq system introduced by Kaup. We focus on a specific version of this "Kaup-Boussinesq model" for which a flat water surface is modulationally stable, we speak below of "positive dispersion" model. This model also appears as an approximation to the equations governing the dynamics of polarisation waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We describe its periodic solutions and the corresponding Whitham modulation equations. The self-similar, one-phase wave structures are composed of different building blocks, which are studied in detail. This makes it possible to establish a classification of all the possible wave configurations evolving from initial discontinuities. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.