Expected, sensed, and desired: A framework for designing sensing-based interaction

Steve Benford*, Holger Schnädelbach, Boriana Koleva, Rob Anastasi, Chris Greenhalgh, Tom Rodden, Jonathan Green, Ahmed Ghali, Tony Pridmore, Bill Gaver, Andy Boucher, Brendan Walker, Sarah Pennington, Albrecht Schmidt, Hans Gellersen, Anthony Steed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Movements of interfaces can be analyzed in terms of whether they are expected, sensed, and desired. Expected movements are those that users naturally perform; sensed are those that can be measured by a computer; and desired movements are those that are required by a given application. We show how a systematic comparison of expected, sensed, and desired movements, especially with regard to how they do not precisely overlap, can reveal potential problems with an interface and also inspire new features. We describe how this approach has been applied to the design of three interfaces: pointing flashlights at walls and posters in order to play sounds; the Augurscope II, a mobile augmented reality interface for outdoors; and the Drift Table, an item of furniture that uses load sensing to control the display of aerial photographs. We propose that this approach can help to build a bridge between the analytic and inspirational approaches to design and can help designers meet the challenges raised by a diversification of sensing technologies and interface forms, increased mobility, and an emerging focus on technologies for everyday life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-30
Number of pages28
JournalACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes

Research Group keywords

  • Interaction Research Studio

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