Experimental Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition Process (Case Study)

Rasheedat Modupe Mahamood*, Esther Titilayo Akinlabi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this chapter, a case study on the laser metal deposition (LMD) process of functionally graded material (FGM) of titanium-alloy composite is presented. A functionally graded composite material of an important titanium alloy—Ti64/TiC or Ti6Al4V/TiC was fabricated using the LMD process with the different TiC percentage. The TiC of up to 50 W.% on the Ti64 substrate was produced. The first layer of the FGM is 100% Ti64; the next layer consists of a mixture of 95% and 5% TiC. The percentage of Ti64 was continuously reduced by 5% and the percentage of TiC increased by 5% in the mixture for each subsequent layer up to the last layer of 50% Ti64 and 50% of TiC. The microstructure, the mechanical, and the tribological properties of the produced FGM were studied using an optical microscope, a microhardness tester, and the wear tester. The microstructure of the fabricated FGM showed a continuous microstructure, without any sharp interface between the substrate and the deposited layers. To compare the properties of the FGM produced, a traditional composite of Ti64/TiC was also produced, using the LMD process. The properties of the FGM, the composite and the substrate are compared; and the results are presented and discussed in this chapter. The results indicate that the microstructure of the traditional composite showed a sharp interface between the deposited layers and the substrate. The fabricated FGM has improved mechanical and tribological properties, compared with the conventional composite and the Ti64 substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTopics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
Place of PublicationCham, Switzerland
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9783319537566
ISBN (Print)9783319537559, 9783319852362
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameTopics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
ISSN (Print)2364-3293
ISSN (Electronic)2364-3307

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