Experimental Analysis of Nanostructured PEEK, African Giant Snail Shell, and Sea Snail Shell Powder for Hydroxyapatite Formation for Bone Implant Applications

Agbor A. Esoso*, Tien-Chien Jen, Omolayo Micheal Ikumapayi, Bankole I. Oladapo, Esther T. Akinlabi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


This experimental research focuses on the nanostructure analysis of three materials; polyether ether ketone (PEEK), African land giant snail shell (ALGSS), and sea snail shell (SSS) powder, for the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings in bone implant applications. The study aimed to evaluate these materials’ surface characteristics, furrow depth, density, and other relevant parameters to assess their suitability as bone implant materials. The nanostructure analysis revealed distinct characteristics for each material. PEEK exhibited shallow furrows and a high density of furrows, making it a favourable substrate for hydroxyapatite coating formation. The ISO 25178 roughness analysis further characterised surface roughness and topography. African land giant snail shell powder, displayed a high material ratio, indicating a potential for hydroxyapatite conversion for biomedical application. The sea snail shell powder demonstrated intermediate furrow depth and density, warranting further investigation for optimisation as a precursor for hydroxyapatite coatings. The findings emphasise the significance of nanostructure properties in bone implant materials. The tailored nanostructure of materials such as PEEK, the synthesized powder can influence their biocompatibility, osseointegration, and long-term performance. The novelty of this research lies in the comprehensive analysis of the nanostructure properties of these materials, contributing to the understanding of their potential for bone implant applications. Overall, this experimental research is significant and provides valuable insights into the nanostructure characteristics of PEEK, African land giant snail shell powder, and sea snail shell powder and they all demonstrated the potential of forming hydroxyapatite coatings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100398
Number of pages14
JournalComposites Part C: Open Access
Early online date27 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023

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