The results of a research project carried out on masonry panels obtained from structures struck by the Umbria-Marchigiano earthquake of 1997–1998 are presented. The project consists of two parts: tests were performed in the laboratory, and in situ in order to determine the correct parameters describing masonry behavior. With regard to the laboratory tests, several compression tests were performed on cylindrical stone samples. Stone samples were obtained from the panels on which in situ tests had been previously carried out. Depending on the three types of in situ tests carried out (compression test, diagonal compression test, shear–compression test), different dimensions of panels were used using an appropriate cutting technique in order to leave the panels undisturbed. The shear strength and the Young and shear elastic modulus were measured. These results were compared with the values suggested by different standards. The experimental research allowed to characterize the mechanical properties of some typical masonry walls in old buildings of Umbria. These results are reported, together with an analysis of the masonry textures and sections.