Extreme cognitions are associated with diminished ability to use disconfirming evidence

Matthew Haigh, Alyson Dodd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
28 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives - An Integrative Cognitive Model of mood swings and bipolar disorder proposes that cognitive styles characterised by extreme self-referent appraisals of internal states (e.g., ‘If I have a bad night’s sleep it means that I am about to have a breakdown’) interfere with mood regulation. The aim of this study is to determine whether strong endorsement of such appraisals is predicted by a diminished ability to access disconfirming counterexamples. Design - We examined whether the ability to access two different categories of counterexample (known as Disabling Conditions and Alternative Causes) would predict endorsement of extreme appraisals (measured by the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory; HAPPI) and mania risk (measured by the Hypomanic Personality Scale; HPS). Method - A non-clinical sample of 150 students completed the HAPPI, the HPS and a conditional reasoning task that indexed the ability to access Disabling Conditions and Alternative Causes. Current mood was controlled for using the Internal States Scale. Results - The ability to make use of disabling counterexamples during the reasoning task was inversely related with scores on the HAPPI (r= -.19, p
Original languageEnglish
JournalPsychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 May 2016


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