Extreme positive and negative appraisals of activated states interact to discriminate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression and non-clinical controls

Rebecca Kelly, Warren Mansell, Alex Wood, Yousra Alatiq, Alyson Dodd, Ruth Searson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background - This research aimed to test whether positive, negative, or conflicting appraisals about activated mood states (e.g., energetic and high states) predicted bipolar disorder. Methods - A sample of individuals from clinical and control groups (171 with bipolar disorder, 42 with unipolar depression, and 64 controls) completed a measure of appraisals of internal states. Results - High negative appraisals related to a higher likelihood of bipolar disorder irrespective of positive appraisals. High positive appraisals related to a higher likelihood of bipolar disorder only when negative appraisals were also high. Individuals were most likely to have bipolar disorder, as opposed to unipolar depression or no diagnosis, when they endorsed both extremely positive and extremely negative appraisals of the same, activated states. Limitations - Appraisals of internal states were based on self-report. Conclusions - The results indicate that individuals with bipolar disorder tend to appraise activated, energetic internal states in opposing or conflicting ways, interpreting these states as both extremely positive and extremely negative. This may lead to contradictory attempts to regulate these states, which may in turn contribute to mood swing symptoms. Psychological therapy for mood swings and bipolar disorder should address extreme and conflicting appraisals of mood states.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-443
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume134
Issue number1-3
Early online date11 Jun 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011

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