Factorial validity and measurement invariance of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ)

Michael Grugan*, Luke F. Olsson, Robert Vaughan, Daniel J. Madigan, Andrew P. Hill

*Corresponding author for this work

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The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) is the gold standard measure for burnout in athletes. However, previous assessments of factorial validity have: (a) tested overly restrictive measurement models; (b) provided mixed support for factorial validity; and (c) not been applied to assess measurement invariance across gender, sport type, or age. To address these issues, we used ABQ data provided by 914 athletes (Mage = 21.75 years, SD = 8.79) and examined factorial validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) techniques. We also examined measurement invariance of the ABQ data across reported gender (female, male), sport type (individual, team), and age (≤18 years, >18 years) groups. The analyses revealed that an ESEM model provided superior fit over the corresponding CFA model. In terms of measurement invariance, support was provided for the equivalence of the ABQ across each group. This means that researchers using the ABQ can collect data across these groups and examine potential differences with confidence that the ABQ is approximately invariant. In all, we provide evidence that the majority of ABQ items are key target construct indicators and the burnout construct (as measured by the ABQ) has the same structure and meaning to different athlete groups.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102638
Number of pages9
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Early online date5 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Apr 2024

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