Measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) and tear production are key components of ophthalmic examination. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were anesthetized using either tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ; 2 mg/kg) combined with medetomidine (TZM; 0.02 mg/kg), or, TZ alone (6mg/kg). Tear production was lower (P = 0.03) with TZM (5.63 ± 6.22 mm/min; n = 16) than with TZ (11.13 ± 4.63 mm/min; n = 8). Mean IOP, measured using rebound tonometry in an upright body position (n = 8) was 18.74 ± 3.01 mm Hg, with no differences between right and left eyes. However, positioning chimpanzees in left lateral recumbency (n = 27) resulted in higher IOP in the dependent (left) eye (24.77 ± 4.49 mm Hg) compared to the nondependent (right) eye (22.27 ± 4.65 mm Hg) of the same animal (P < 0.0001). These data indicate medetomidine anesthesia markedly lowers tear production in chimpanzees, and that body position should be taken into consideration when performing rebound tonometry.