Introduction Little is known of acupuncture patients' experiences and opinions of clinical trials, and what may influence their compliance when participating in an acupuncture trial. Objectives To explore the potential factors that influence patients' choice and determinants to participate in acupuncture clinical trials. Methods Ten qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with patients from acupuncture clinics in Beijing, who had previously participated in acupuncture clinical trials. Results Four main themes emerged from the interview data: Effectiveness of the treatment, convenience of participating in a trial, doctor-participant communication, and participant acceptance of the treatment (or the trial). Effectiveness of acupuncture in treating the health condition was the most important factor for participant adherence. Pragmatics of treatment schedules, travel and attendance burden, together with confidence in the doctor's ability additionally influenced trial and treatment compliance. Conclusions In-depth interviews suggest that treatment effectiveness, the pragmatics of attending treatment sessions, and the expertise and attitudes of acupuncturists are determining factors of participation and compliance in acupuncture clinical trials. Participants' confidence in, and expectation of, acupuncture may facilitate compliance, while their fear of acupuncture and negative perceptions of the trial's purpose may reduce treatment compliance. Compliance may be facilitated by enhanced doctor-patient communication, personalized treatment programs, and feedback on treatment outcomes.