Objective Patients undergoing haemodialysis may experience troubling symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep quality, which may affect their quality of life. The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep quality among patients receiving haemodialysis during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and to explore the contributing predictors. Methods A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design using Qualtrics software was performed. Data were collected using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the predictors that were associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep quality. Results Of the 123 patients undergoing haemodialysis who participated, 53.7% (n = 66) reported fatigue, 43.9% (n = 54) reported anxiety, 33.3% (n = 41) reported depression and 56.9% (n = 70) reported poor sleep. Fatigue, anxiety and sleep quality (P < .05) were significantly associated with being female, and whether family members or relatives were suspected or confirmed with COVID-19. Logistic regression showed that being within the age group 31–40, having a secondary education level, anxiety, depression and sleep quality were the main predictors affecting the fatigue group. Conclusion Fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep quality are significant problems for patients receiving haemodialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Appropriate interventions to monitor and reduce fatigue, psychological problems and sleep quality amongst these patients are needed. This can help to strengthen preparations for responding to possible future outbreaks or pandemics of infectious diseases for patients receiving haemodialysis.