Fetal health classification from cardiotocographic data using machine learning

Abolfazl Mehbodniya, Arokia Jesu Prabhu Lazar, Julian Webber, Dilip Kumar Sharma, Santhosh Jayagopalan, K. Kousalya, Pallavi Singh, Regin Rajan, Sharnil Pandya, Sudhakar Sengan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Health complications during the gestation period have evolved as a global issue. These complications sometimes result in the mortality of the fetus, which is more prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. The genesis of machine learning (ML) algorithms in the healthcare domain have brought remarkable progress in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This research deploys various ML algorithms to predict fetal health from the cardiotocographic (CTG) data by labelling the health state into normal, needs guarantee, and pathology. This work assesses the influence of various factors measured through CTG to predict the health state of the fetus through algorithms like support vector machine, random forest (RF), multi-layer perceptron, and K-nearest neighbours. In addition to this, the regression analysis and correlation analysis revealed the influence of the attributes on fetal health. The results of the algorithms show that RF performs better than its peers in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, and support. This work can further enhance more promising results by performing suitable feature engineering in the CTG data.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12899
Number of pages13
JournalExpert Systems
Issue number6
Early online date1 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes

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