The taxonomic positions of two fast growing mycobacteria (CECT 8778T and CECT 8779T) were established using a polyphasic approach. The strains were shown to have chemotaxonomic, cultural and morphological properties consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. Multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) show that strain CECT 8778T forms a well-supported clade together with the type strains of Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium austroafricanum and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii while strain CECT 8779T presents as a distinct branch that is well separated from its near phylogenetic neighbours; it is also apparent from the MLSA genetic distances that these strains are most closely related to the type strains of Mycobacterium mageritense and M. vanbaalenii, respectively. Digital DNA:DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between each of the strains and its close phylogenetic neighbour are below the 70 and 96% threshold values for definition of prokaryotic species; these results are underpinned by corresponding phenotypic data. Based upon the consensus of the phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, it can be concluded that the two strains represent novel species within the genus Mycobacterium for which the following names are proposed: Mycobacterium neglectum sp. nov., with the type strain CECT 8778T (BN 3150T = DSM 44756T) and Mycobacterium palauense sp. nov., with the type strain CECT 8779T (= DSM 44914T).