Fourth-generation glucose sensors composed of coppernanostructures for diabetes management: A critical review

Gowhar Naikoo*, Tasbiha Awan, Hiba Salim, Fareeha Arshad, Israr Hassan, Mona Zamani Pedram, Waqar Ahmed, Hakkim Faruck, Alaa Alijabali, Vijay Mishra, Angel Serrano-Aroca, Rohit Goyal, Poonam Negi, Martin Birkett, Mohamed Nasef, Nitin Charbe, Hamid Bakshi*, Murtaza Tambuwala*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)
134 Downloads (Pure)


More than five decades have been invested in understanding glucose biosensors. Yet, this immensely versatile field has continued to gain attention from the scientific world to better understand and diagnose diabetes. However, such extensive work done to improve glucose sensing devices has still not yielded desirable results. Drawbacks like the necessity of the invasive finger-pricking step and the lack of optimization of diagnostic interventions still need to be considered to improve the testing process of diabetic patients. To upgrade the glucose-sensing devices and reduce the number of intermediary steps during glucose measurement, fourth-generation glucose sensors (FGGS) have been introduced. These sensors, made using robust electrocatalytic copper nanostructures, improve diagnostic efficiency and cost-effectiveness. This review aims to present the essential scientific progress in copper nanostructure-based FGGS in the past 10 years (2010 to present). After a short introduction, we presented the working principles of these sensors. We then highlighted the importance of copper nanostructures as advanced electrode materials to develop reliable real-time FGGS. Finally, we cover the advantages, shortcomings, and prospects for developing highly sensitive, stable, and specific FGGS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10248
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalBioengineering and Translational Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date9 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Fourth-generation glucose sensors composed of coppernanostructures for diabetes management: A critical review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this