Based on shear-deformable beam theory, free vibration of thin-walled composite Timoshenko beams with arbitrary layups under a constant axial force is presented. This model accounts for all the structural coupling coming from material anisotropy. Governing equations for flexural-torsional-shearing coupled vibrations are derived from Hamilton’s principle. The resulting coupling is referred to as sixfold coupled vibrations. A displacement-based one-dimensional finite element model is developed to solve the problem. Numerical results are obtained for thin-walled composite beams to investigate the effects of shear deformation, axial force, fiber angle, modulus ratio on the natural frequencies, corresponding vibration mode shapes and load–frequency interaction curves.