Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is an advanced 3D printing technique for the manufacture of plastic materials. The ease of use, prototyping accuracy and low cost makes it a widely used additive manufacturing technique. FDM creates 3D structures through the layer-by-layer melt-extrusion of a plastic filament. The production of a printed structure involves the generation of a digital design of the model by 3D design software and its execution by the printer until the complete model is reproduced. This review presents the current status of FDM, how to handle and operate FDM printers, industry standards of printing, the types of filaments that can be used, the post-processing treatments, advantages, and limitations as well as an overview of the increasing application fields of FDM technology. The application areas of FDM are endless, including biomedicine, construction, automotive, aerospace, acoustics, textiles, and occupational therapy amongst others. Even during the current Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, FDM has helped to fabricate face masks, ventilators and respiratory systems, respiratory valves, and nasopharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 diagnosis. FDM 3D and 4D printing can produce polymeric and composite structures of various designs, and compositions in a range of materials according to the desired application. The review concludes by discussing the future prospects for FDM.