Fuzzy Q-Learning-Based Approach for Real-Time Energy Management of Home Microgrids Using Cooperative Multi-Agent System

Azam Salari, Seyed Ehsan Ahmadi, Mousa Marzband, Mahdi Zeinali*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The development of plug-in electrical vehicles (PEVs) and distributed energy resources in home microgrids (H-MGs) is gaining attention in recent years. Accordingly, it is vital to apply a suitable energy management system to provide the required energy of the PEV and ensure the health of the energy storage systems in the H-MG. This paper proposes a continuous real-time cooperative multi-agent system (MAS) for H-MG. Real-time MAS interacts with H-MG agents to perform as independent learners applying a distributed and cooperative reinforcement learning method, while state variables are shared to coordinate their real-time behavior. Therefore, the fuzzy Q-learning (FQL) method is investigated to control the agents in the continuous state space and achieve an efficient solution. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the suggested control strategy to guarantee the energy supply and reduce the electricity market price. The results of the simulation demonstrate that using the proposed cooperative MAS with the real-time FQL method in the energy management of the H-MG will reduce the electricity market price by 10\%, increase the health of the storage system by 35.67\%, and enhance the utilization of the PV system to charge PEV for 8\% at the peak load demand.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104528
Number of pages13
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
Early online date18 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023

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