Gender Equality and Female Offending: Evidence From International Data Sources

Doris C. Chu*, Bill Hebenton, Albert Toh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper examines the nature of female offending patterns in relationship to societal gender equality using cross-national analysis of 27 European countries for the year 2006. Importantly, our analysis uses a conceptually innovative indicator (the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index) to determine relative levels of gender equality. Results show that countries with a narrower gender gap in the Global Gender Gap indexes of political empowerment were likely to have a higher female prosecution rate, and that political empowerment was also significantly associated with female conviction rates as well as rates of property offending. The pattern of results generally supports the liberation thesis. Finally, limitations and suggestions for future study are addressed
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1496-1519
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Issue number13-14
Early online date15 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes

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