Gender Equality in Abrahamic Circumcision: Why or Why Not?

Ingvild Bergom Lunde (Editor), Matthew Thomas Johnson* (Editor), Richard A. Shweder, Fuambai Sia Ahmadu, Tatu Kamau, Brian D. Earp, Allan J. Jacobs, Carlos David Londoño Sulkin, Seth B. Rozin, Aasim I. Padela, Bríd Hehir, Juliet Rogers, Michael E. Rosman, Bettina Shell-Duncan, Ellen Gruenbaum, Samira A. Ahmed, Shaye J. D. Cohen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationSpecial issue


This issue emerges more than 40 years after the initiation of zero-tolerance global campaigns to end all forms of female genital cutting (FGC). The practice of cutting female genitalia without medical necessity is commonly referred to as ‘female genital cutting’, ‘female genital mutilation’ and/or ‘female circumcision’. Sometimes, the term ‘girl circumcision’ is used in order to make a distinction between the childhood and adulthood genital cutting of females. The practice is commonly categorised into four types by the World Health Organization: type I – cutting of the outer clitoris; type II – the partial or total removal of the outer clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora; type III/infibulation – narrowing the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal, with or without removal of the outer clitoris; and type IV – all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical reasons. A body of research from a range of fields shows that in contemporary hegemonic public discourse, the acceptable way of talking about, interpreting and comprehending the practice is through a framework of condemnation (Hauge, 2012; Shell-Duncan et al, 2016; Hodzic, 2017; Lunde, 2020).

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages244
Specialist publicationGlobal Discourse
PublisherBristol University Press
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


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