In this article, we design and evaluate the proposed Geographic-based Spray-and-Relay (GSaR) routing scheme in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs). To the best of our knowledge, GSaR is the first spray based geographic routing scheme using the historical geographic information for making routing decision. Here, the term spray means only a limited number of message copies are allowed for replication in the network. By estimating a movement range of destination via the historical geographic information, GSaR expedites message being sprayed towards this range, meanwhile prevents that away from and postpones that out of this range. As such, the combination of them intends to fast and efficiently spray the limited number of message copies towards this range, and effectively spray them within range, in order to reduce the delivery delay and increase the delivery ratio. Furthermore, GSaR exploits Delegation Forwarding (DF) to enhance the reliability of routing decision and handle the local maximum problem, considered as the challenges for applying geographic routing scheme in sparse networks. We evaluate GSaR under three city scenarios abstracted from real world, with other routing schemes for comparison. Results show that GSaR is reliable for delivering messages before expiration deadline and efficient for achieving low routing overhead ratio. Further observation indicates that GSaR is also efficient in terms of a low and fair energy consumption over the nodes in the network.
|Number of pages||17|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology|
|Early online date||17 Jun 2014|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2015|