Based on a seven-degree-of-freedom shear deformable beam model, a geometrical nonlinear analysis of thin-walled composite beams with arbitrary lay-ups under various types of loads is presented. This model accounts for all the structural coupling coming from both material anisotropy and geometric nonlinearity. The general nonlinear governing equations are derived and solved by means of an incremental Newton–Raphson method. A displacement-based one-dimensional finite element model that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity in the von Kármán sense is developed to solve the problem. Numerical results are obtained for thin-walled composite beam under vertical load to investigate the effects of fiber orientation, geometric nonlinearity, and shear deformation on the axial–flexural–torsional response.