Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt) is a critical microbial cell factory to produce a wide spectrum of marketable products including recombinant biopharmaceutical N-glycoproteins. N-glycosylation modification of proteins is important for their activity, stability, and half-life, especially some special modifications, such as fucose-modification by fucosyltransferase (FucT). Three PtFucTs were annotated in the genome of P. tricornutum, PtFucT1 was located on the medial/trans-Golgi apparatus and PtFucT2-3 in the plastid stroma. Algal growth, biomass and photosynthesis efficiency were significantly inhibited in a knockout mutant of PtFucT1 (PtFucT1-KO). PtFucT1 played a role in non-core fucose modification of N-glycans. The knockout of PtFucT1 might affect the activity of PtGnTI in the complex and change the complex N-glycan to mannose type N-glycan. The study provided critical information for understanding the mechanism of protein N-glycosylation modification and using microalgae as an alternative ecofriendly cell factory to produce biopharmaceuticals.