Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years

Ashkan Afshin, Mohammad Forouzanfar, Marissa Reitsma, Patrick Sur, Kara Estep, Alex Lee, Laurie Marczak, Ali Mokdad, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Joseph Salama, Theo Vos, Kalkidan Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Ziad Al-Aly, Ala'a Alkerwi, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Azmeraw Amare, Alemayehu AmberbirAdeladza K. Amegah, Erfan Amini, Stephen Marc Amrock, Ranjit M. Anjana, Johan Ärnlöv, Hamid Asayesh, Amitava Banerjee, Aleksandra Barac, Estifanos Baye, Derrick Bennett, Addisu Shunu Beyene, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Stan Biryukov, Espen Bjertness, Dube Boneya, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Juan J. Carrero, Pedro Cecilio, Kelly Cercy, Liliana Ciobanu, Leslie Cornaby, Solomon Damtew, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Samath Dharmaratne, Bruce B. Duncan, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Valery Feigin, João C. Fernandes, Thomas Fürst, Tsegaye T. Gebrehiwot, Audra Gold, Philimon Gona, Atsushi Goto, Tesfa D. Habtewold, Kokeb T. Hadush, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Simon Hay, Masako Horino, Farhad Islami, Ritul Kamal, Amir Kasaeian, Srinivasa V. Katikireddi, Andre Kengne, Chandrasekharan Kesavachandran, Yousef Khader, Young-Ho Khang, Jagdish Khubchandani, Daniel Kim, Yunjin Kim, Yohannes Kinfu, Soewarta Kosen, Tiffany Ku, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Anil Kumar, Heidi Larson, Mall Leinsalu, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen Lim, Patrick Liu, Alan Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Mohsen Mazidi, Colm McAlinden, Stephen T. McGarvey, Desalegn T. Mengistu, George Mensah, Gert B. M. Mensink, Haftay B. Mezgebe, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Ulrich Mueller, Jean J. Noubiap, Carla M. Obermeyer, Felix Ogbo, Mayowa O. Owolabi, George Patton, Farshad Pourmalek, Mostafa Qorbani, Anwar Rafay, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Nikolas Reinig, Saeid Safiri, Joshua Salomon, Juan Ramon Sanabria, Itamar Santos, Benn Sartorius, Monika Sawhney, Josef Schmidhuber, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte, Maria I. Schmidt, Sadaf Sepanlou, Moretza Shamsizadeh, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Min-Jeong Shin, Rahman Shiri, Ivy Shiue, Hirbos Shore Roba, Diego A. S. Silva, Jonathan Silverberg, Jasvinder Singh, Saverio Stranges, Soumya Swaminathan, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Fentaw Tadese, Bemnet Amare Tedla, Balewgizie S. Tegegne, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, J. S. Thakur, Marcello Tonelli, Roman Topor-Madry, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Olalekan Uthman, Masoud Vaezghasemi, Tommi Vasankari, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Joshua Wesana, Ronny Westerman, Yuichiro Yano, Naohiro Yonemoto, Gerald Yonga, Zoubida Zaidi, Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe, Ben Zipkin, Christopher Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2575 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-27
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume377
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2017

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