Hierarchical biocide-free silicone/graphene-silicon carbide nanocomposite coatings for marine antifouling and superhydrophobicity of ship hulls

Mohamed S. Selim, Ahmed M. Azzam, Shimaa A. Higazy, Mohamed A. Shenashen, Ahmed Elmarakbi, Mitsuhiro Ebara, Sherif A. El-Safty*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A new series of fluorine-free, nonbiocidal, and hierarchical superhydrophobic silicone coatings filled with reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/β-SiC bamboo-like nanocomposites was successfully fabricated as durable ternary marine fouling release (FR) surfaces. RGO/β-SiC hybrid was used as coating nanofiller that would release fouling and confer surface robustness. It was facilely created using a straightforward one-phase ultrasonication technique. The dispersion of different concentrations of RGO sheets decorated with β-SiC bamboo-like fillers was determined to study the superhydrophobicity and antifouling behaviors of polysiloxane nanocomposites. RGO was prepared through a simple hydrothermal technique. Solution casting was used to distribute the RGO/β-SiC nanofillers throughout a silicone matrix. Atomic force microscopy, surface free energy, and water contact angle (WCA) were employed to examine the superhydrophobicity and micro/nanoroughness of the coatings. The mechanical, anticorrosive, and durability characteristics of the silicone-RGO/β-SiC-filled composites were also investigated. The antifouling effects of the coating systems were evaluated in the laboratory for 30 days with specific bacteria. The silicone-RGO/β-SiC (3 wt%) composite with the best dispersion, highest WCA (156°), and lowest surface free energy (12.7 mN/m) among the composites exhibited favorable FR characteristics. The well-dispersed PDMS-RGO/β-SiC (3 wt% nanofiller) composite presented the minimum degradation and cell viability percentages against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as diatoms. Therefore, this study produced a series of nonstick and fluorine-free ternary FR nanocomposites for maritime coatings with surface durability, superhydrophobicity, and fouling retardancy. This work highlights the design and preparation of multifunctional marine nanocoatings with excellent antifouling performance, easy applicability, and superhydrophobicity properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119929
Number of pages14
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Early online date25 Feb 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Feb 2024

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