A growing body of empirical evidence, mainly originating from American studies, suggests that firms are increasingly incorporating high-performance human resources (HR) practices in order to improve financial performance and sustain a competitive advantage (see Xirogiannis, et al. 2008; Namasivayam, et al. 2007; Becker and Gerhart, 1996; Guest, 1997 for reviews). In doing so, businesses seek to organize their workplaces in such a way that makes efficient use of human capital. In this study, we aim to examine which, if any, HR practice impinges upon the performance of Greek companies. Few studies have examined the effect of HR on organizational performance within the context of Mediterranean countries (Brewster et al. 2004; Khilji and Wang, 2007; Guidetti and Mazzanti 2007). Numerous workplace practices may have an influence upon firm performance, but the empirical examination of the HR practices proposed by Pfeffer (1998) has produced reliable results in Western countries (US, Northern Europe). We focus on Greek food sector which presents many similarities with European and Mediterranean food sectors. The next section reviews the relevant literature on best HR practices. A discussion of the methodology employed for data collection follows. The last two sections analyse the key results, the major implications of the study and the possible avenues for future research.