High-precision prediction of blood glucose concentration utilizing Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and an ensemble machine learning algorithm

Shuai Song, Qiaoyun Wang*, Xin Zou, Zhigang Li, Zhenhe Ma, Daying Jiang, Yongqing (Richard) Fu, Qiang Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Raman spectroscopy has gained popularity in analyzing blood glucose levels due to its non-invasive identification and minimal interference from water. However, the challenge lies in how to accurately predict blood glucose concentrations in human blood using Raman spectroscopy. This paper researches a novel integrated machine learning algorithm called Bagging-ABC-ELM. The optimal input weights and biases of extreme learning machine (ELM) model are obtained by artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The bagging algorithm is used to obtain a better the stability of the model and higher performance than ELM algorithm. The results show that the mean value of coefficient of determination is 0.9928, and root mean square error is 0.1928. Compared to other regression models, the Bagging-ABC-ELM model exhibited superior prediction accuracy, robustness, and generalization capability. The Bagging-ABC-ELM model presents a promising alternative for analyzing blood glucose levels in clinical and research settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123176
JournalSpectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Early online date20 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2023

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