Highly Luminescent Dinuclear Platinum(II) Complexes Incorporating Bis-Cyclometallating Pyrazine-Based Ligands: A Versatile Approach to Efficient Red Phosphors

Stacey Culham, Pierre-Henri Lanoe, Victoria Whittle, Marcus Durrant, J. A. Gareth Williams, Valery Kozhevnikov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

A series of luminescent dinuclear platinum(II) complexes incorporating diphenylpyrazine-based bridging ligands ((LH2)-H-n) has been prepared. Both 2,5-diphenylpyrazine ((LH2)-H-2) and 2,3-diphenylpyrazine ((LH2)-H-3) are able to undergo cyclometalation of the two phenyl rings, with each metal ion binding to the two nitrogen atoms of the central heterocycle, giving, after treatment with the anion of dipivaloyl methane (dpm), complexes of formula \{Pt(dpm)\}(2)L-n. These compounds are isomers of the analogous complex of 4,6-diphenylpyrimidine ((LH2)-H-1). Related complexes of dibenzo-(f,h)quinoxaline ((LH2)-H-4), 2,3-diphenyl-quinoxaline ((LH2)-H-5), and dibenzo{[}3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine ((LH2)-H-6) have also been prepared, allowing the effects of strapping together the phenyl rings ((LH2)-H-4 and (LH2)-H-6) and/or extension of the conjugation from pyrazine to quinoxaline ((LH2)-H-5 and (LH2)-H-6) to be investigated. In all cases, the corresponding mononuclear complexes, Pt(dpm)(LH)-H-n, have been isolated too. All 12 complexes are phosphorescent in solution at ambient temperature. Emission spectra of the dinuclear complexes are consistently red shifted compared to their mononuclear analogues, as are the lowest energy absorption bands. Electrochemical data and TD-DFT calculations suggest that this effect arises primarily from stabilization of the LUMO. Introduction of the second metal ion also has the effect of substantially increasing the molar absorptivity and, in most cases, the radiative rate constants. Meanwhile, extension of conjugation in the heterocycle of (LH2)-H-5 and (LH2)-H-6 and planarization of the aromatic system favored by interannular bond formation in (LH2)-H-4 and (LH2)-H-6 leads to further red shifts of the absorption and emission spectra to wavelengths that are unusually long for cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes. The results may offer a versatile design strategy for tuning and optimizing the optical properties of d-block metal complexes for contemporary applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10992-11003
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Volume52
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Highly Luminescent Dinuclear Platinum(II) Complexes Incorporating Bis-Cyclometallating Pyrazine-Based Ligands: A Versatile Approach to Efficient Red Phosphors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this