In this paper, we propose and design a highly sensitive optical biochemical sensor based on two-layer dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide (TDLSPPW)-based microring resonator (MRR). By optimizing the structure parameters, the propagation length of the proposed waveguide is ~126 μm, which is about 3 times of that of the polymer dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide (DLSPPW) reported. It is demonstrated that the TDLSPPW-based MRR is operated at the under-coupling state, along with the quality factor (Q) of 541.2 and extinction ratio (ER) of 12.2 dB. Moreover, the Q and ER are much more sensitive to the structure parameters of the waveguide, including the waveguide width w, total thickness t, and coupling gap Wgap, compared to the low refractive index (RI) layer thickness t2. The simulation results on the biochemical RI sensing show that the sensitivities of 408.7 and 276.4 nm/RIU for glucose concentration in urine and chemical gases can be achieved, respectively. It is believed that the proposed sensor has potential applications in photonic-integrated biochemical sensing.