Hybrid machine learning with optimization algorithm and resampling methods for patch load resistance prediction of unstiffened and stiffened plate girders

Zhengyi Kong, Dai Nhan Le, Thai Hoan Pham, Keerthan Poologanathan, George Papazafeiropoulos, Quang Viet Vu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper aims to propose a new hybrid Machine Learning (ML) with Egret Swarm Optimization Algorithm (ESOA) and Weighted Relevance-based Combination Strategy (WERCS) methods for predicting the patch loading resistance (PLR) of both longitudinally unstiffened and stiffened plate girders. A dataset of both stiffened and unstiffened plate girders under patch loading are collected and used for training and testing to generate the proposed models. Firstly, the WERCS method is used to resample the training set to improve the performance of training data. After that, four ML models, including Gradient Boosted Tree (GTB), Extreme Gradient Boosting algorithm (XGB), Artificial neural network (ANN), and CATBoost regression (CAT) are employed. The hyperparameter of all above ML models are optimized by using ESOA algorithm to choose the best performance models. It was found that the WERCS influences considerably the performance of hybrid ML models, and the WERCS + ESOA + XGB model presents the best performance compared to others. The accuracy of the WERCS + ESOA + XGB model is validated by comparing its predictive results with the existing design codes and formulae. Additionally, the Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) method is used to assess the importance and contributions of each input variable in the proposed model. This algorithm can explain the global and local effects of features with each range and create favourable foundations for practical designing. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool is developed to conveniently estimate both the patch loading resistance of longitudinally unstiffened and stiffened plate girders. A Python library has been developed and uploaded to PyPi for more convenient use without the need for accessing the source code.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123806
Pages (from-to)1-25
Number of pages25
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Issue numberPart C
Early online date24 Mar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 Mar 2024

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