Identifying Coronal Sources of L1 Solar Wind Disturbances Using the Fisk Heliospheric Magnetic Field and Potential Field Extrapolations during Three Solar Minima

P. J. Steyn*, D. Johnson, G. J. J. Botha, S. Régnier

*Corresponding author for this work

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The solar minima between solar cycles 22–23, 23–24, and 24–25 are the best observed minima on record. In situ solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements by the Wind and ACE spacecraft at L1 with 1 hr cadence are explored using wavelet analyses for the most quiescent year during each minimum. Times of local peaks in periodicities are identified in the solar wind velocity, magnetic field components, and proton number densities. The measured radial velocities at these times are used to trace magnetic field lines to the photosphere using two models. The first is the Fisk heliospheric magnetic field that traces field lines from L1 to the photosphere. They connect exclusively to solar poles and in 88% of instances to locations of polar coronal holes (PCHs). The second model uses the Parker spiral to trace from L1 to the solar source surface and potential-field extrapolations from the source surface to the photosphere. These field lines terminate at equatorial and midlatitude coordinates, of which some are located close to coronal holes (CHs). This study connects for the first time CH signatures in the ecliptic plane at L1 with PCHs using the Fisk field. It shows how sources from both the solar equator and poles influence the solar wind at L1 and how the two models complement each other to identify these sources.
Original languageEnglish
Article number77
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Early online date26 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024

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