The influence of hydrogen on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) behaviour of Inconel 718 has been studied at room temperature in asymmetric push–pull mode using an ultrasonic HCF test rig. Fatigue tests have been carried out in gaseous hydrogen (GH2) and in Ar at a pressure of 30 MPa. Oscillating stresses with amplitudes (σa) up to 450 MPa and mean stresses (σm) up to 600 MPa have been applied. For a given σa and σm, the lifetime in Ar is generally longer than in GH2, which is explained by a hydrogen-induced embrittlement of the material. For a constant σa of 218 MPa, the lifetime in Ar and in GH2 is very similar for high σm, but the difference in lifetime increases as the mean stress decreases. An approach is presented to describe the number of cycles to failure Nf as a function of σa and σm. Microstructural analysis has been performed on the specimens tested at View the MathML source and two values of σm (300 MPa and 600 MPa). SEM analyses of the fracture surfaces of these samples indicate embrittlement of the material when tested in hydrogen atmosphere.