In this work, effects of 10 keV argon ion implantation on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of fused silica were systematically investigated with ion fluences ranged from 1 × 1016 ions/cm2 to 1 × 1018 ions/cm2. Results show that only when the ion fluence increases above 1 × 1017 ions/cm2, the surface roughness apparently increases due to the formation of argon bubbles in the surface of fused silica. The concentration of defects decreases with the increased fluences up to 1 × 1017 ions/cm2 but then increases further, especially for the oxygen deficient center (ODC) defect. Based on the nanoindentation test results, Ar ion implantation generates large compressive stress and strengthens the surface of fused silica by surface densification. With the increase of the Ar ion fluences, the LIDTs of the samples increase due to the increases in both surface compressive stress and defects annihilation. However, at higher ion fluences, the increase of the densities of defects and argon bubbles are identified as the key reasons for the decrease of the LIDTs. Therefore, Ar ion implantation can improve the LIDTs of fused silica at moderate fluences.