Application of surface modification methods is expected to be an ideal solution to mitigate fretting damage. In this study, our aim was to improve the fretting wear and fretting fatigue resistance of titanium alloys by using several types of surface treatments and thin films, including shot-peening, ion-beam-enhanced deposition (IBED) CrN films, shot-peening+IBED CrN films as well as IBED CuNiIn films. Results showed that with the application of all the above surface coatings and treatments, the fretting wear and fretting fatigue resistance of Ti–6Al–4V were improved. However, the mechanisms and effects of several surface modification methods to mitigate the fretting damage were quite different. IBED CrN film exhibited the best fretting fatigue performance while the duplex treatment by shot-peening/IBED CrN film exhibited the highest fretting wear resistance. There are four mechanisms which can be used to explain the different fretting performance of these surface treatments and coatings: (1) to induce a compressive residual stress; (2) to decrease the coefficient of friction; (3) to increase the hardness; (4) to increase the surface roughness.