The slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the significant reasons limiting the development of electrochemical hydrolysis. Doping metallic elements and building layered structures have been considered effective strategies for improving the electrocatalytic performance of the materials. Herein, we report flower-like nanosheet arrays of Mn-doped-NiMoO4/NF (where NF is nickel foam) on nickel foam by a two-step hydrothermal method and a one-step calcination method. The doping manganese metal ion not only modulated the morphologies of the nickel nanosheet but also altered the electronic structure of the nickel center, which could be the result of superior electrocatalytic performance. The Mn-doped-NiMoO4/NF electrocatalysts obtained at the optimum reaction time and the optimum Mn doping showed excellent OER activity, requiring overpotentials of 236 mV and 309 mV to drive 10 mA cm−2 (62 mV lower than the pure NiMoO4/NF) and 50 mA cm−2 current densities, respectively. Furthermore, the high catalytic activity was maintained after continuous operation at a current density of 10 mA cm−2 of 76 h in 1 M KOH. This work provides a new method to construct a high-efficiency, low-cost, stable transition metal electrocatalyst for OER electrocatalysts by using a heteroatom doping strategy.